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1. Dewi Anjelina
2. Yuyun Sri Wahyuni
3. Queency Variany
4. Yuanita

20 Mei 2013

Indirect Speech, Direct Speech & Reported Speech

Indirect Speech (Indirect sentence) is a sentence that says, greeting a person reported back without changing mean what the speaker said.

Reported Speech (The sentence in the report) is a sentence that reports back saying someone without changing the intent that it says the speaker, reported speech can say as another name of indirect speech.
.:. For Example Indirect Speech / Reported Speech

Indirect Speech / Reported Speech Sentence
.: Tono said that Tina had bought a new car
.: Joko said that her parents were very well
.: Doni said that she was going to give up smoking
.: Samuel said that she could not come to the party on Saturday
From the above it can be concluded from the time change to form speech Reported / Indirect Speech as follows:

Indirect Speech / Reported speech
.: Present Simple Become Past Simple
.: Present Continuous Become Past Continuous
.: Present perfect Become Past perfect
.: Present perfect Become continuous Past perfect continuous
.: Simple Past Become Past perfect
.: Past continuous Become Past perfect continuous
.: Future Become Past
.: Past Become Present

In the Speech Reported / Indirect Speech, there are changes into the past tense.
for example:
.: Am / is Become was
.: Are Become was / were
.: Have / has Become had
.: Have to Become had to
.: Has to Become had to
.: Shall Become should
.: Will Become would
.: Can Become could
.: May become might
.: Walk Become walked
.: Wear become wore

Reported Speech
Reported speech Refers to a sentence reporting what someone has said. It is almost always used in spoken English.

If the reporting verb (ie said) is in the past, the reported clause will be in a past form. This form is usually one step back into the past from the original.
For example:
o He said the test was difficult.
o She said she watched TV every day.
o Jack said he came to school every day.

If simple present, present perfect or the future is used in the reporting verb (ie says) the tense is retained.
For example:
o He says the test is difficult.
o She has said that she watches TV every day.
o He will say that he comes to school every day.

If reporting a general truth the present tense will be retained.
For example: The teacher said that phrasal verbs are very important.

Changing Pronouns and Time Expressions

When changing from direct speech to reported speech, it is often necessary to change the pronouns to match the subject of the sentence.

For example:
  • She said, "I want to bring my children." BECOMES She said she wanted to bring her children.
  • Jack said, "My wife went with me to the show." BECOMES Jack said his wife had gone with him to the show.
For example:
  • She said, "I want to bring my children tomorrow." BECOMES She said she wanted to bring her children the next day.
  • Jack said, "My wife went with me to the show yesterday." BECOMES Jack said his wife had gone with him to the show the day before.
Reported Questions
When reporting questions, it is especially important to pay attention to sentence order. When reporting yes/ no questions connect the reported question using 'if'. When reporting questions using question words (why, where, when, etc.) use the question word.

For example:
  • She asked, "Do you want to come with me?" BECOMES She asked me if I wanted to come with her.
  • Dave asked, "Where did you go last weekend?" BECOMES Dave asked me where I had gone the previous weekend.
  • He asked, "Why are you studying English?" BECOMES She asked me why I was studying English.

The following chart includes sentences changed from quoted speech to reported speech using a past form. Note Simple past, present perfect, and past perfect all change to past perfect in the reported form.

Common Reported Speech Transformations

He said, "I live in Paris."
He said he lived in Paris.
He said, "I am cooking dinner."
He said he was cooking dinner.
He said, "I have visited London twice."
He said he had visited London twice.
He said, "I went to New York last week."
He said he had gone to New York the week before.
He said, "I had already eaten."
He said he had already eaten.
He said, "I am going to find a new job."
He said he was going to find a new job.
He said, "I will give Jack a call."
He said he would give Jack a call.

A) Reported speech rules

If we want to say what other people said, thought or felt, we can use the direct and indirect speech (reported speech).
The direct speech: "I like it," he said. "Irene is late," he thought. "I will pass the exam," she hoped.
The reported speech: He said he liked it. He thought that Irene was late. She hoped she would pass the exam.

The reported speech is typically introduced by verbs such as say, tell, admit, complain, explain, remind, reply, think, hope, offer, refuse etc. in the past tense. 
He said (that) he didn't want it.
She explained that she had been at the seaside.

If these verbs are in the past tense, we change the following:
a) verb tenses and verb forms,
b) pronouns,
c) the adverbs of time and place.
A) Verb tenses

We change the tenses in the following way:
1. Present - past
"I never understand you," she told me. - She told me she never understood me.  
"We are doing exercises," he explained. - He explained that they were doing exercises.

2. Present perfect - past perfect
"I have broken the window," he admitted. - He admitted that he had broken the window.
"I have been waiting since the morning," he complained. - He complained that he had been waiting since the morning.

3. Past - past perfect
"She went to Rome," I thought. - I thought that she had gone to Rome.
"He was thinking of buying a new car," she said. - She said he had been thinking of buying a new car.

4. Will - conditional
Will changes into the conditional.
"I will come on Sunday," he reminded me. - He reminded me that he would come on Sunday.

I shall, we shall usually become would.
"I shall appreciate it," he said. - He said he would appreciate it.

I should, we should usually changes into would.
"We should be really glad," she told us. - She told us they would be really glad.

May becomes might.
"I may write to him," she promised. - She promised that she might write to him.

The verb forms remain the same the following cases.

1. If the reporting verb is in the present tense.
Bill: "I am enjoying my holiday." - Bill says he is enjoying his holiday.
Sandy: "I will never go to work." - Sandy says she will never go to work.

2. When we report something that is still true.
Dan: "Asia is the largest continent." - Dan said Asia is the largest continent.
Emma: "People in Africa are starving." - Emma said people in Africa are starving.

3. When a sentence is made and reported at the same time and the fact is still true.
Michael: "I am thirsty." - Michael said he is thirsty.

4. With modal verbs would, might, could, should, ought to, used to.
George: "I would try it." - George said he would try it.
Mimi: "I might come." - Mimi said she might come.
Steve: "I could fail." - Steve said he could fail.
Linda: "He should/ought to stay in bed." - Linda said he should/ought to stay in bed.
Mel: "I used to have a car." - Mel said he used to have a car.

5. After wish, would rather, had better, it is time.
Margo: "I wish they were in Greece." - Margo said she wished they were in Greece.
Matt: "I would rather fly." - Matt said he would rather fly.
Betty: "They had better go." - Betty said they had better go.
Paul: "It is time I got up." - Paul said it was time he got up.

6. In if-clauses.
Martha: "If I tidied my room, my dad would be happy." - Martha said that if she tidied her room, her dad would be happy.

7. In time-clauses.
Joe: "When I was staying in Madrid I met my best friend." - He said that when he was staying in Madrid he met his best friend.

8. We do not change the past tense in spoken English if it is clear from the situation when the action happened.
"She did it on Sunday," I said. - I said she did it on Sunday.
We must change it, however, in the following sentence, otherwise it will not be clear whether we are talking about the present or past feelings.
"I hated her," he said. - He said he had hated her.

9. We do not usually change the modal verbs must and needn't. But must can become had to or would have to and needn't can become didn't have to or wouldn't have to if we want to express an obligation.
Would/wouldn't have to are used to talk about future obligations.
"I must wash up." - He said he must wash up/he had to wash up.
"I needn't be at school today."    - He said he needn't be/didn't have to be at school that day.
"We must do it in June." - He said they would have to do it in June.
If the modal verb must does not express obligation, we do not change it.
"We must relax for a while." (suggestion) - He said they must relax for a while.
"You must be tired after such a trip." (certainty) - He said we must be tired after such a trip.

B) pronouns
 We have to change the pronouns to keep the same meaning of a sentence.
"We are the best students," he said. - He said they were the best students.
"They called us," he said. - He said they had called them.
"I like your jeans," she said. - She said she liked my jeans.
"I can lend you my car," he said. - He said he could lend me his car.
Sometimes we have to use a noun instead of a pronoun, otherwise the new sentence is confusing.
"He killed them," Kevin said. - Kevin said that the man had killed them.
If we only make-mechanical changes (Kevin said he had killed them), the new sentence can have a different meaning - Kevin himself killed them.
This and these are usually substituted.
"They will finish it this year," he said. - He said they would finish it that year.
"I brought you this book," she said. - She said she had brought me the book.
"We want these flowers," they said. - They said they wanted the flowers.

C) Time and place
Let's suppose that we talked to our friend Mary on Friday. And she said: "Greg came yesterday." It means that Greg came on Thursday. If we report Mary's sentence on Sunday, we have to do the following:
Mary: "Greg came yesterday." - Mary said that Greg had come the day before.
If we say: Mary said Greg had come yesterday, it is not correct, Because it means that he came on Saturday.
The time expressions change as follows.
today - that day, tomorrow - the next day / the following day, the day after tomorrow - in two days' time, yesterday - the day before, the day before yesterday - two days before, next week / month - the following week / month, last week / month - the previous week / month, a year ago - a year before / the previous year
Bill: "She will leave tomorrow." - Bill said she would leave the next day.
Sam: "She arrived last week." - Sam said she had arrived the previous week.
Julie: "He moved a year ago." - Julie said he had moved a year before.
If something is said and reported at the same time, the time can REMAIN the same expressions.
"I will go on holiday tomorrow," he told me today. - He told me today he would go on holiday tomorrow.
"We painted the hall last weekend," she told me this week. - She told me this week they had painted the hall last weekend.
On the other hand, if something is reported later, the time expressions are different in the reported speech. Last week Jim said:
"I'm playing next week."
If we say his sentence a week later, we will say:
Jim said he was playing this week.
Here Becomes usually there. But sometimes we make-different adjustments.
At school: "I'll be here at 10 o'clock," he said. - He said he would be there at 10 o'clock.
In Baker Street: "We'll meet here." - He said they would meet in Baker Street.
Questions Become statements. The reporting verb say changes into ask, want to know, wonder ... .
"Where have you been?" he said. - He asked me where I had been.
"What time did it start?" he said. - He wanted to know what time it had started.
"Why will not he do it?" she said. - She wondered why he would not do it.
In yes / no questions we use if or Whether in questions. If Whether is more common and is more formal.
"Will you come?" she asked me. - She asked me if / Whether I would come.
"Did he marry Sue?" she said. - She wondered if / Whether he married Sue.
Commands, requests and advice
The commands, requests and advice mostly have the same form in English: verb + object + infinitive (advise, ask, beg, forbid, order, persuade, recommend, tell, urge, warn etc.).
Unlike the direct speech addressed the person must be Mentioned in the indirect speech.
"Get up!" he said. - He told me to get up.
"Please, revise for the test," he said. - He urged me to revise for the test.
"Put on your coat," I said. - I advised him to put on his coat.
Negative commands, requests and advice are made by not + verb + object + infinitive.
"Do not hesitate," he said. - He persuaded me not to hesitate.
"Do not smoke," the doctor warned my father. - The doctor warned my father not to smoke.
Tell can introduce statements, commands, requests or advice. The form is different, however.
Statements with tell
"I'm leaving," he told me. - He told me that he was leaving.
Commands, requests or advice with tell
"Leave the room," he told John. - He told John to leave the room.
"Do not give up," the teacher told her students. - The teacher told the students not to give up.
Similarly ask is used in reported questions, commands, requests or advice in different forms.
Ask questions with
"Will you make-coffee?" he said. - He asked me if I would make-coffee.
Commands, requests or advice with ask
"Make coffee, please," he said. - He asked me to make-coffee.
"Do not park in my place," Greg told me. - Greg asked me not to park in his place.

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